Hierarchy of effects model

  • Hierarchy of effects model

It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a business buyer moves through when making a purchase. The steps are:

  1. Awareness
  2. Knowledge
  3. Liking
  4. Preference
  5. Conviction
  6. Purchase
  • Means-End Theory

This approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message or means that leads the consumer to a desired end state.

  • Leverage Points

It is designed to move the consumer from understanding a product’s benefits to linking those benefits with personal values.

  • Verbal and Visual Images

The political economy of advertisement is the theory that a few powerful groups, or ‘knowledge monopolies, control the thoughts, behaviours, and actions of the public through mass media as communication. As a form of communication, advertisement uses repeated verbal and visual images to develop and alter society. Over time, these repeated images and symbols become associated with either positive or negative attributes and can modify the public’s evaluation of such cultural objects as people, religions, ethnic groups, and societal roles. Thus, the media forms the beliefs and values of the public through media portrayals. The messages of the political economy commonly correlate with current economic interests.

The marketing mix has been the key concept to advertising. The marketing mix was suggested by professor E. Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. The marketing mix consists of four basic elements called the four P’s. Product is the first P representing the actual product. Price represents the process of determining the value of a product. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer like distribution channels, market coverage and movement organisation. The last P stands for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to go out and buy the product.

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