Biology

BiologyBiology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology:

Cells are the basic unit of life
New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution
Genes are the basic unit of heredity
An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition

Living organisms consume and transform energy.

Sub-disciplines of biology are recognised on the basis of the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues, organs, and organ systems of an organism;evolutionary biology examines the processes that have given rise to the diversity of life; and ecology examines how various organisms interact and associate with their environment.

The main branches of biology:

  • Aerobiology – the study of airborne organic particles
  • Agriculture – the study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications
  • Anatomy – the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
  • Arachnology – the study of arachnids
  • Astrobiology – the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe—also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy
  • Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
  • Bioengineering – the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
  • Biogeography – the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally
  • Bioinformatics – the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
  • Biomathematics (or Mathematical biology) – the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
  • Biomechanics – often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics
  • Biomedical research – the study of the human body in health and disease
  • Biophysics – the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
  • Biotechnology – a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
  • Building biology – the study of the indoor living environment
  • Botany – the study of plants
  • Cell biology – the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
  • Conservation biology – the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
  • Cryobiology – the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings
  • Developmental biology – the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
  • Ecology – the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
  • Embryology – the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth)
  • Entomology – the study of insects
  • Environmental biology – the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity
  • Epidemiology – a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
  • Epigenetics – the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
  • Ethology – the study of animal behaviour
  • Evolutionary biology – the study of the origin and descent of species over time
  • Genetics – the study of genes and heredity
  • Herpetology – the study of reptiles and amphibians
  • Histology – the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
  • Ichthyology – the study of fish
  • Integrative biology – the study of whole organisms
  • Limnology – the study of inland waters
  • Mammalogy – the study of mammals
  • Marine biology (or Biological oceanography) – the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
  • Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (micro-organisms) and their interactions with other living things
  • Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
  • Mycology – the study of fungi
  • Neurobiology – the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology
  • Oncology – the study of cancer processes, including virus or mutation oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings
  • Ornithology – the study of birds
  • Population biology – the study of groups of conspecific organisms, includingPaleontology – the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
    • Population ecology – the study of how population dynamics and extinction
    • Population genetics – the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms
  • Pathobiology or pathology – the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
  • Parasitology – the study of parasites and parasitism
  • Pharmacology – the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
  • Physiology – the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
  • Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
  • Psychobiology – the study of the biological bases of psychology
  • Sociobiology – the study of the biological bases of sociology
  • Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
  • Synthetic Biology- research integrating biology and engineering; construction of biological functions not found in nature
  • Virology – the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
  • Zoology – the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior (branches include: Entomology, Ethology, Herpetology, Ichthyology, Mammalogy, and Ornithology)
At Prestige Essays we have a number of experts in Biology so do not hesitate to contact us.
Order now paypal

Comments are closed.

Malcare WordPress Security