Management

Management

Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organising, staffing, leading/directing, controlling/monitoring and motivation.

  • Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action.
  • Organising: (Implementation) pattern of relationships among workers, making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans.
  • Staffing: Job analysis, recruitment and hiring for appropriate jobs.
  • Leading/directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it.
  • Controlling/monitoring: Checking progress against plans.
  • Motivation: Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation does not take place in an organisation, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top-level management).

Basic roles

  • Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees.
  • Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analysing information.
  • Decisional: roles that require decision-making.

Management skills

  • Political: used to build a power base and establish connections.
  • Conceptual: used to analyse complex situations.
  • Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate.
  • Diagnostic: the ability to visualise most appropriate response to a situation

Formation of the business policy

  • The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap.
  • The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination.
  • The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
  • The business’s policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees.
  • The business’s strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realise its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilise the factors of production to the business’s advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.

Implementation of policies and strategies

  • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff.
  • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies.
  • A plan of action must be devised for each department.
  • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly.
  • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes.
  • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers.
  • A good environment and team spirit is required within the business.
  • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the business’s mission.
  • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business’s future environment.
  • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.

All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in the execution of any departmental policy.

  • Organisational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight-step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, don’t let up, and make change stick.

Policies and strategies in the planning process

  • They give mid and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organisation.
  • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made.
  • Mid and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business’s strategies.

Levels of management

Most organisations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organisations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.

Top-level managers

Consists of board of directors, president, vice-president, CEOs, etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organisation. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilisation of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public.

According to Lawrence S. Kleiman, the following skills are needed at the top managerial level.

  • Broadened understanding of how: competition, world economies, politics, and social trends effect organisational effectiveness .

Middle-level managers

Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department’s function. They devote more time to organisational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasised as executing organisational plans in conformance with the company’s policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance. Some of their functions are as follows:

  • Designing and implementing effective group and intergroup work and information systems.
  • Defining and monitoring group-level performance indicators.
  • Diagnosing and resolving problems within and among work groups.
  • Designing and implementing reward systems supporting cooperative behaviour.

First-level managers

Consist of supervisors, section leads, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and upchanneling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide:

  • Basic supervision.
  • Motivation.
  • Career planning.
  • Performance feedback
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